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Newsletter 9

19 April, 2011

Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle
Graeme Dunphy, gen. ed. The Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle. 2 vols. Leiden: Brill, 2010. ISBN 978-90-04-18464-0 / 978 90 04 18464 0. 1832 pp. € 399; $ 555.

The Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle is now in print. This new reference work on chronicles was conceived at the 2002 Utrecht conference of the Chronicle Society, and throughout the years we were working on it, the members of the Society have provided a constant source of encouragement and expertise. Our 450-strong army of authors have been magnificent team to work with, and we can be very pleased indeed with what we have produced.

The EMC is a two-volume encyclopedia covering some 2500 chronicles written from 300 to 1500. In keeping with the tradition of the Chronicle Society, we took a very broad understanding of the chronicle as a genre, assuming that annals are chronicles and that hybrid works with chronicle-like elements belong to our field of study. Given the western orientation of much work in chronicle studies, it was important also to include East-Slavic, Byzantine, Syriac, Jewish and Islamic works. One thing I am particularly pleased with is our coverage of manuscript traditions, and the manuscript index references over 7000 codices. We were also keen to note questions of lay-out and illustration, as some 60 full-page reproductions attest. But for most users, the important thing will be the fact that it is now possible to look up a chronicle in a reference work which is not written in Latin and get the basic data on it quickly.

The publishers are now working on an electronic version, which might appear next year. This will allow us to correct any errors and will also make it possible to add regular batches of new articles. I hope that eventually all those little sets of Latin annals which we had to omit can be covered, and the biblio¬graphies expanded. The publishers have also hinted that when the electronic edition has evolved significantly beyond the paper version, a second printed edition may be viable. This, then, is an on-going project, and I very much hope that the members of the Chronicle Society will continue to feel involved in it. Graeme Dunphy

The Medieval Chronicle Series
The Medieval Chronicle VII – forthcoming

Papers from the first Cambridge International Chronicle Symposium (CICS) form the core of vol. VII, which in its entirety is dedicated to chronicles written in Britain, and includes papers on texts in Latin, French/Anglo-Norman, English and the Celtic languages. Guest editors of the volume are Juliana Dresvina and Nicholas Sparks, the CICS organizers. The possibility of a thematic volume offered itself unexpectedly, but was welcomed by the editorial board. Members are invited to submit proposals for similar thematic volumes.

The Medieval Chronicle VIII – Call for contributions
Although much of the space of vol. VIII will undoubtedly go to papers read at the conference in Pécs in 2011, members are reminded that they can always submit papers independent of conference activities.

Discount for The Medieval Chronicle VII
As soon as the new volume is out, a special folder will be sent to the members, including information on the usual discount for the new and previous issues.

New Publications

Art, Music, History
Representing History 900-1300. Art, Music, History. Ed. Robert A. Maxwell. Collected Paper Series
sponsored by the Index of Christian Art, Princeton University. Philadelphia: Penn State University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-271-03636-6. $ 79.95.

Modern scholarship, particularly historical studies, has long acknowledged the importance of the past to medieval conceptions of the present. This volume brings art history and music into dialogue with historical studies. The essays draw out the strategies shared by these fields in the realm of historical representation. How was the creative representation of past practices in illuminated manuscripts, monumental sculpture, and architecture, as well as in musical notation, motet composition, and performance understood as both a historical and historicizing act? What kinds of relationships did composers, patrons, chroniclers, and musicians entertain with their predecessors? Historical studies have shown how chroniclers and annalists rewrote tradition while self-consciously writing themselves into it; the essays in this volume explore such strategies in art and music.

History in Manuscript Painting
Imagining the Past in France: History in Manuscript Painting, 1250-1500. Ed. Anne D. Hedeman and Elizabeth Morrison. Los Angeles: Getty Museum Publications, 2010. It is a publication put together on the occasion of an exhibition; see

Illuminated Chronicles
The book of the Illuminated Chronicle. Ed. László-Wehli Veszprémy and József Tünde-Hapák. Budapest: Kossuth, 2009.

The Latin Chronicle Tradition
Richard Burgess and Michael Kulikowski, eds. A History of the Chronicle from the Ancient Near East to the European Middle Ages. Mosaics of Time. The Latin Chronicle Traditions from the Late Republic to the Early Middle Ages.1 (Studies in the Early Middle Ages 33). Turnhout: Brepols, 2011.

This multi-volume work will provide a comprehensive history of the chronicle and related genres in Latin, setting them in their wider Mediterranean context. After the first, historical volume further volumes will include texts, translations and extensive commentary on that tradition. In cases where an adequate textus receptus exists, we will print that, but in most instances we are producing new editions.

In Preparation
Richard Gurgess and Michael Kulikowski, eds. Mosaics of Time. The Latin Chronicle Traditions from the Late Republic to the Early Middle Ages: 2, 3, 4. (Studies in the Early Middle Ages 34-36). Brepols.
For more information contact the editors, Richard Burgess or Michael Kulikowski: –

Time-reckoning, calendars etc.
Immo Warntjes and Dáibhí Ó Cróinín, ed. Computus and its Cultural Context in the Latin West, AD 300-1200. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on the Science of Computus in Ireland and Europe, Galway, 14-16 July, 2006. Studia Traditionis Theologiae 5 (Gen ed. Thomas O’Loughlin). Turnhout: Turnhout, 2010. ISBN : 978-2-503-53317-9. € 65.

The scientific knowledge that Irish, English, and continental European scholars nurtured and developed during the years c. AD 500 to c. AD 1200 was assimilated, in the first place, from the wider Roman world of Late Antiquity. Time-reckoning, calendars, and the minute reckonings required to compute the date of Easter, all involved the minutiae of mathematics (incl. the original concept of ‘digital calculation’) and astronomical observation in a truly scientific fashion. In fact, the ‘Dark Ages’ were anything but dark in the fields of mathematics and astronomy.

The first Science of Computus conference in Galway in 2006 highlighted the transmission of Late Antique Mathematical Knowledge in Ireland & Europe, the development of astronomy in Early Medieval Ireland & Europe and the role of the Irish in the development of computistical mathematics.

The Early Middle Ages
Verbist, Peter. Duelling with the past: medieval authors and the problem of the Christian Era, c. 990 – 1135. Studies in the Early Middle Ages, v. 21. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2010. Pp. x, 366. $102.00. ISBN 2-503-52073-5.

Richard Corradini, Matthew Gillis, Rosamond McKitterick and Irene van Renswoude, eds. Ego-Trouble. Authors and Their Identities in the Early Middle Ages. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Phil.-hist. Klasse. Denkschriften 185 = Forschungen zur Geschichte des Mittelalters 15. Wien, 2010. ISBN 978-3-7001-6872-0. 322 pp. € 54.

Although not altogether clear from the title, the focus in this volume is on early medieval historiography. Identity can be seen as a complex interface between the individual and society, whereby in each period of history the scope of individual identification has been dealt with in different ways and defined by different parameters. Conflicts and disruptions, failure and longing for change are unavoidable elements of this process. This volume deals with a number of authors of the Middle Ages, writing between the 5th and the 11th centuries, whose works contain elements relating to identity and differentiation. These elements, if seen within their social, ethnic, political or religious context, can be shown to be textual strategies. The articles collected in this volume demonstrate, on one hand, that the awareness of the self as an individual in conflict with social identities was by no means so alien or little thought about as is often believed; on the other hand, they also show that during these seven centuries no single, continuous and dogmatic body of knowledge about the individual was established, believed or followed.

Peterborough Chronicle
The Peterborough Chronicle (Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Laud Misc. 636). Ed. Bernard J Muir. Bodleian Digital Series 4. Evellum Digital Publishing (forthcoming).

Evellum Digital Publishing ( and The Bodleian Library are pleased to announce a new digital facsimile edition of The Peterborough Chronicle (Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Laud Misc. 636) by Professor Bernard J Muir. It will appear in 2012 as Volume 4 in the Bodleian Digital Series. The edition includes a new translation and an analysis of the rhetorical strategies of the chroniclers, as well as a comprehensive analysis of scribal practices, a bibliography, and a complete set of high resolution images. Any enquiries should be directed to Bernard Muir at:

Medieval Irish Chronicles
Nicholas Evans, The Present and the Past in Medieval Irish Chronicles. Studies in Celtic History series. The Boydell Press: Cambridge, 2010. ISBN 978 1 84383 549 3.

Ireland has the most substantial corpus of annalistic chronicles for the early period in western Europe. They are crucial sources for understanding the Gaelic world of Ireland and Scotland, and offer insights into contacts with the wider Christian world. This new study dispels longstanding uncertainty over their development, production, and location prior to 1100. It analyses the principal Irish chronicles and argues that the chroniclers were in contact with each other and that their texts reflect the social connections of the Irish elites, and that sections describing the early Christian period were altered by subsequent chroniclers. The author also reconstructs the chronicles’ contents and chronology at different times and shows how the accounts were altered to reflect and promote certain views of history.

Twelfth-Century Chronicles: Hugo von Fleury, Ordericus Vitalis and Otto von Freising
Elisabeth Mégier, Christliche Weltgeschichte im 12. Jahrhundert: Themen, Variationen und Kontraste. Untersuchungen zu Hugo von Fleury, Ordericus Vitalis und Otto von Freising. Beihefte zur Mediaevistik, Vol.13. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2010. 437 S. ISBN 978-3-631-60072-6. € 69.80.

Die in diesem Buch zusammengefassten Untersuchungen vereint eine Grundfrage, nämlich die nach der christlichen Geschichtssicht des lateinischen Mittelalters. Gesucht wurde aber, statt nach einem paradigmatischen Grundmodell, nach den spezifischen Annäherungsweisen einzelner Autoren: statt nach feststehenden Gemeinsamkeiten, nach Unterschieden, Spannungen und Veränderungen. Die drei betrachteten Autoren zeigen ihre Eigenheit nicht nur in der Behandlung einzelner Themen (wie: das Fegefeuer, das Individuum, die Fortuna, die Zisterzienser, die antike Mythologie, Karl der Große, die nachbiblischen Juden), sondern auch und vor allem in der Darstellung und Wertung der damaligen historiographischen Zentralgegenstände, der biblischen und der römischen Geschichte, und in ihrer sinnhaften Verbindung mit der Gegenwart.

Hugo von Flavigny
Mathias Lawo, Studien zu Hugo von Flavigny. MGH Schriften 61. München, 2010. xx + 436 S. 10 Abb. ISBN 978-3-7752-5761-9. EUR 60.

Die Werke Hugos von Flavigny, wie dieser lotharingische Autor der späteren Salierzeit nach der höchsten von ihm nachweislich bekleideten Würde gemeinhin bezeichnet wird, sind im Wesentlichen in den erst im 18. Jahrhundert geteilten Handschriften Phillipps 1870 und 1814 der Staatsbibliothek Preußischer Kulturbesitz zu Berlin auf uns gekommen. Ediert davon ist einzig eine von Christi Geburt bis zum Jahre 1102 reichende Chronik (MGH SS 8 S. 288–502). Diese Ausgabe wurde jedoch schon im 19. Jahrhundert als unbefriedigend erachtet, weil sie – unter offensichtlichem Zeitdruck entstanden – fehlerhaft ist und zeitbedingt der wissenschaftlichen wie technischen Grundlagen zu einer angemessenen Darstellung der Arbeitsweise des Chronisten entbehrt. Als Vorstufe einer zeitgemäßen kritischen Edition klärt die nun vorliegende Studie neben der Biographie des Autors vor allem die Entstehungsgeschichte des gesamten Werkkomplexes. Dabei wird der Nachweis zu führen versucht, dass die Codices Hugos autographes Arbeitsexemplar waren. Zudem wird die in der Hauptsache um 1845 geleistete, vornehmlich auf Chroniken fokussierte Quellenanalyse mit vereinzelten jüngeren Funden und eigenen Beobachtungen verbunden und mit den neuerdings zu Gebote stehenden elektronischen Hilfsmitteln verfeinert. Aufgrund der in den Anhängen gebotenen Berichtigungen zur Pertz’schen Edition kann der Text der Chronik nun korrekt zitiert werden, ohne gleich auf die Handschriften zurückgreifen zu müssen.

The Winchcombe and Coventry Chronicles
Hayward, Paul, ed. and trans. The Winchcombe and Coventry Chronicles: Hitherto Unnoticed Witnesses to the Work of John of Worcester. 2 vols. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 373. Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2010. ISBN: 978–0–86698–421–8. xli + 750 pages along with 6 full colour plates. US$ 140 / £ 106.

The Winchcombe and Coventry Chronicles are the foremost examples of ‘the breviate world chronicle in annalistic format’ to survive for twelfth-century England. Their importance lies not only in what they have to say about the histories of houses and regions in which they were produced, but also in their close connection with the Chronica chronicarum of John of Worcester. This two-volume set edits and translates both texts in full for the first time. It includes comprehensive source-critical and historical commentaries, and an extensive introduction explaining their genesis, their textual affinities, and their purpose.

Benedictine Historiography
Pieter-Jan de Grieck, De benedictijnse geschiedschrijving in de Zuidelijke Nederlanden (ca. 1150-1550): historisch bewustzijn en monastieke identiteit. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010. xii + 640 p. ISBN: 978-2-503-54031-3. € 65.

This book examines the historiography written by benedictine monks in the Southern Netherlands (present-day Belgium and the North of France) from the mid-twelfth up to the mid-sixteenth centuries. This period is often considered as a time of crisis and even decadence in the history of Benedictine monasticism. One of the questions addressed by this book is whether the Benedictines themselves perceived their increasing involvement in the world as problematic. A study of their historical writings shows how they positioned themselves in late medieval society. Special attention goes to the influence of crises and of reform movements like Cluny, St. Jacques (Liège), and Bursfeld. The second part of the book offers a detailed in-depth analysis of the historiographical production from the abbey of St Martin’s in Tournai, throwing a fresh light on the experience of monastic identity in an urban context.

Chronicles in Late Medieval Iberia
Aengus Ward, History and Chronicles in Late Medieval Iberia. Representations of Wamba in Late Medieval Narrative Histories. Later Medieval Europe 7. Leiden: Brill, 2011. ISBN 978 90 04 20272 6. € 99 / US$ 135.

A Chronicle of the Count of Benthem
Friedel Helga Roolfs, Heike Bierschwale, Volker Honemann (eds.), Een cronike van den greven van Benthem. Edition und Übersetzung einer spätmitelalterlichen Chronik der Grafen von Bentheim. Westfälische Beiträge zur niederdeutschen Philologie, 12. Bielefeld, 2010. 96 pp. ISBN: 978-3-89534-872-3. € 14.

Die Berliner Handschrift Mgq 812 überliefert eine lange übersehene Chronik der Grafen von Bentheim von den Anfängen bis 1485 (sie schließt mit einer Notiz zum 12. Juni 1485), die hier in solider Edition vorgelegt wird. Der Text folgt seiner Hauptquelle, der lateinischen Utrechter Chronik von Jan Beke, so eng, dass man teilweise von einer Übersetzung sprechen kann. Ausführlich wird, entsprechend dem Charakter der Reihe, die Sprache des Textes gewürdigt, die unter niederländischem Einfluss steht. Die beigegebene Übersetzung ermöglicht auch oberdeutschen Lesern die bequeme Lektüre. Der Sach-kommentar erscheint gelungen. Leider vermisst man eine Abbildung aus der Handschrift. In reality, this is in many ways a chronicle of the bishops of Utrecht, dealing extensively with the battle of Ane 1225.

Jan van Naaldwijk: Chronicles of Holland
Sjoerd Levelt, Jan van Naaldwijk’s Chronicles of Holland: Continuity and Transformation in the Historical Tradition of Holland in the Early Sixteenth Century. Hilversum: Verloren, 2011. € 39. ISBN: 9789087042219 – Languages: English, Middle Dutch. Additional: cd-rom.

The little-known author Jan van Naaldwijk, whose two early sixteenth-century Dutch chronicles of Holland are preserved in autograph manuscripts in the British Library, wrote at a moment reputed to be the turning point between medieval and Renaissance modes of historical writing. While he primarily relied on the medieval historical tradition of Holland, he expanded it in ways that allow us to appreciate the broader impact of innovations occurring at the same time in more ‘professional’ scholarly circles. This is the first in-depth study of these chronicles and their relation to their sources, placed in the wider context of history writing running from the mid-fourteenth century into the eighteenth, providing new insights into the continuities and transitions that characterized the historical tradition of Holland from the late middle ages well into the early modern period. An accompanying cd-rom contains transcriptions of both Jan’s chronicles.

Hungarian-Polish Chronicle
Homza, Martin, (ed. and comment), and Balegová, Jana (trans.). Uhorsko-poľská kronika [Hungarian-Polish Chronicle]. Libri historiae Slovaciae, seria Fontes Bratislava, vol. 1. Post scriptum, 2009. 223 pp. (contains the Latin text, the Slovak translation, the commentaries, the title paper and facsimile)

Central European Medieval Texts
Bak, János M., Martyn Rady, László Veszprémy (eds.). Anonymous, Notary of King Béla, The Deeds of the Hungarians, Master Roger’s Epistle to the Sorrowful Lament about the Destruction of Hungary by the Tartars. Central Europeran Medieval Texts, Vol. 5. Budapest-New York, 2010.

The fifth volume of the CEMT – always containing the Latin original and an annotated English translation of narrative – has been published last summer and will be available at a conference discount during the Pécs conference, together with the previous volumes. Those include the Gesta Hungarum of Simon of Kéza (ca. 1285), the Autobiography of Emperor Charles IV and his Life of St Wenceslas, the Gesta principum Polonorum [‘Gallus Anonymus’] (ca. 1118), and the Historia Salonitanorum atque Spalatinorum pontificum by Thomas of Split/Spalato (ca. 1266). The most recent volume contains the first surviving narrative of Hungarian history, the Gesta Hungarorum of the anonymus notary [‘Anonymus’] of King Béla (III), written around 1200-1210, and the Epistola in miserabile Carmen about the Mongol invasion of 1241 by the eye-witness Master Roger.
Discount at Pécs for Central European Medieval Texts

In memoriam prof. Liudmila Boeva
Реката на времето. Сб. статии в памет на проф. Людмила Боева. Съставители А. Вачева и И. Чекова. Сoфиа, 2007. (Der Fluss der Zeit. Ein Sammelband, gewidmet Prof. Liudmila Boeva. Herausg. A. Vacheva und I. Chekova. Sofia, 2007.)
Im Sammelband sind 2-3 Artikel auf Russisch über die altrussische Nestorchronik.

The Codice Morosini
Il Codice Morosini. Il mondo visto da Venezia (1094-1433). Edizione critica, introduzione, indice e altri apparati di Andrea Nanetti. 4 tomi, in custodia, con fac-simile della carta nautica di Francesco de Cesanis datata 1421. Fondazione CISAM. Spoleto 2010. ISBN 978-88-7988-194-4. Pp. i-lxi + 1-2.274.

This is a complete critical edition of all the 560 manuscript carte of the Vienna Codex, including marginal notes by other hands (120 pp. of Introduction + 1720 pp. of text + 440 pp. of Index).

A web based encyclopedic index of the Morosini Code (1400-1433) – the first Venetian Diario (diary), and of the Diarii of his continuator G. Dolfin (1433/4-1457) – is an excellent start to build a multi-dimensional data network for Systems History. The Morosini Code is the first successful example of Venetian historical diary. Until 1400 ca. (1/8 of the text) it is a testimony of the final evidence of fourteenth-century historiography. For what comes afterwards, when the chronicle little by little becomes a diary, it represents the model for the following Venetian vernacular historiography which will lead to Priuli, Michiel and to the most famous 58 volumes of the Sanudo’s Diari. For more information: e-mail: or

New Projects
Chronicle of ‘Amadi’
Dr Nicholas Coureas of the Cyprus research Centre and Prof. Peter Edbury of the University of Cardiff are preparing a translation from Italian into English of the chronicle of ‘Amadi’. This anonymous Cypriot chronicle named after its last owner was written in final form in the mid-fifteenth century and essentally covers the history of Lusignan Cyprus down to the reign of King John II. It includes in Italian translation an otherwise lost version of the chronicle of Philip of Novara, written in French, on the wars of the German Emperor Frederick II against the Ibelins in Latin Syria and Cyprus that took place between 1228-1233.

Conferences – 2011

The Dartmouth Brut Manuscript ––– 20-21 May 2011
“Situating the Dartmouth Brut Manuscript,” Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA.
In 2006, Rauner Special Collections Library of Dartmouth College purchased a fifteenth-century manuscript of the English Brut chronicle. Previously in private hands and not included in previous studies of the Brut tradition, the manuscript contains a unique version of British history, from Trojan settlement to King Arthur to Henry V. This conference aims to bring the Dartmouth Brut into current scholarly discussions of late medieval English culture, scribal practices, and reading publics. Speakers: Elizabeth Bryan (Brown University), Edward Donald Kennedy (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill), Meg Lamont (North Carolina State University), Julia Marvin (University of Notre Dame), Lister Matheson (Michigan State University), Ryan Perry (Queen’s University, Belfast).

The conference is free and open to all. Information and RSVP: Michelle R. Warren, Professor of Comparative Literature (

International Medieval Society-Paris ––– 30 June – 2 July 2011
8th Annual Symposium on the theme of ‘Ordo’

Proposals from chronicle specialists working on France or French-related topics are welcome. The languages of the symposium are French and English. The symposium is open to doctoral students as well. This year the IMS-Paris for the first time is pleased to offer a graduate student prize, details of which are at the end of the call for papers.

The IMS-Paris is an interdisciplinary and bilingual (French/English) organization founded to serve as a centre for medievalists who research, work, study, or travel to France. For more information about the IMS and the schedule of last year’s Symposium, please see our website: For more information: Raeleen Chai-Elsholz (

Historiography and Antiquarianism ––– 12 – 14 August 2011
University of Sydney: ‘Historiography and Antiquarianism’.
The Conference has a webpage and useful information about the conference will be placed there:

Conferences – 2012

7th International Layamon Conference – 21-23 June 2012
Université Paris-Sorbonne – « Centre d’Etudes Médiévales Anglaises »
(CEMA, EA 2557. Direction : Prof. Leo CARRUTHERS)

The conference will be dedicated to Layamon’s Brut as well as to the various Brut chronicles, from the earliest and founding texts (Nennius, Geoffrey of Monmouth, Wace) to versions written after Layamon’s time (Anglo-Norman and Middle-English Brut chronicles, continental versions in the vernacular).
Papers on the broader topic of national histories of medieval Europe are welcome. They should address questions related to:
– Myths of origins, civilizing heroes, time and space.
– Identity and national feeling, collective memory, connections with the past and present.
– Relationship between reality and fiction, History and facts / romance and imagination.
– Propaganda and ideology, glorifying ancestors and a royal lineage.
– Genre & hybridity, literary conventions or originality.
– Audience reception: medieval and current readers.
Please send abstracts of 200-300 words by 15 September 2011 to:
Prof. Marie-Françoise ALAMICHEL:
(CEMA, EA 2557 & IMAGER, EA 3958)

7e colloque international consacré à Layamon – 21-23 juin 2012
Université Paris-Sorbonne – « Centre d’Etudes Médiévales Anglaises » (CEMA, EA 2557. Direction : Prof. Leo CARRUTHERS)

Le colloque sera tout d’abord consacré à la tradition des Brut ou chroniques d’Angleterre. Le Brut de Layamon sera privilégié mais on pourra y ajouter les textes antérieurs, à l’origine de la tradition (Nennius, Geoffroy de Monmouth, Wace) tout comme les Brut postérieurs à celui de Layamon (Brut anglo-normands, moyen-anglais, autres versions en langues vernaculaires européennes).
Le colloque sera ensuite élargi à toute chronique nationale du Moyen Âge européen et aux questions de :
– Mythes fondateurs, héros civilisateurs, temps et espace.
– Identité et sentiment national, mémoire collective, rapports au passé, à l’actualité.
– Liens entre réalité et fiction, Histoire et vérité ou fables et mensonges.
– Propagande, reconstructions idéologiques, glorification des dynasties.
– Genre, hybridité des chroniques, conventions et originalité littéraires.
– Réception des chroniques : lectorat médiéval et contemporain.
Les propositions de communication doivent être adressées accompagnées d’un résumé de 200 à 300 mots avant le 15 septembre 2011 à : Prof. Marie-Françoise ALAMICHEL : (CEMA, EA 2557 & IMAGER, EA 3958)

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